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In education, ministers have been Snowites (“white-hot” Harold Wilson put him in government for a while), new universities and institutes have appeared, and schools have largely abandoned the classics; A levels now include economics and psychology, and it has become easier to mix arts and sciences at A level than it was, while university courses have diversified enormously.

The public appetite for science has grown hugely, and shelves in bookshops are full of titles such as John Gribbin’s In Search of Schrodinger’s Cat, and James Gleick’s Chaos. Pitched at various levels — from those of TV science star Brian Cox to Sir Roger Penrose’s daunting and stupendous thousand-page The Road to Reality, they provide further evidence that it is scientists more than writers who enjoy a caste-like status as gifted initiates. Their realm of almost hieratic symbols and equations remains tantalisingly out of the reach of most. Now that God is discovered to be the One True Mathematician, they are His prophets, and the popularisers their disciples. Writers must deal in mere words; they are preoccupied in finding their niche in a land of a hundred sub-cultures; they have lost confidence in the “traditional culture” — isn’t everybody else’s culture interesting too?

Our culture has become so fragmented, sprawling, relativistic, pluralist, populist and hyperactive that it is more difficult than ever to understand great achievements in fields not our own. We can only attempt it by making a real effort not to be specialised to the blinkers. Those who can should try at least to appreciate some of the elements of maths rather as the Greeks admired those of Euclid. On the other hand, that does not mean (as Snow thought) that we all have to sign up to a repellent conformist technocracy. Why shouldn’t creative writers, if they are intelligent and thoughtful, be pessimistic, nostalgic, radical, angry, or otherwise dissatisfied with the failings of contemporary civilisation? They are entitled to be subjective, and should, in the proper sense of the term, be aesthetes (which Snow, despite being a novelist, wasn’t).

The two-cultures question can never be fully resolved, but it might be better understood. In trying to make sense of ourselves and our civilisation, we do need powerful cultural critics, both in creative and analytical writing, to help us. We have plenty of good academics and incisive commentators, but perhaps none to fill the shoes of seers and sages of the past, from Coleridge and Mill to Orwell and Russell, or of the “public intellectuals” now apparently more valued in France and the US.

On the other hand, imaginative writers should make more frequent ventures into the bounds of science (I don’t mean the fantastic fake science of most science fiction): it would enrich their work. I love the way Milton mentions Galileo (whom he visited in Florence in 1638) in Paradise Lost (“Through optic glass the Tuscan artist views /At evening from the top of Fesole”) and I wonder whether if he’d been more interested in what was going on in the England of Newton and Hooke, and less in seraphic historiography, his epic might have been more consistently engaging. Writers should aim, if not to “justify the ways” of the cosmos to man, at least to help us understand what it is, who we are, and how we should react to what we have learned. Too many are just not very interested.

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Robert O'Brien
March 26th, 2017
10:03 PM
Eric Macdonald is right of course to say Leavis deserves better treatment than I gave in such limited space; right of course that much science deals with the inhuman and that the humanities are crucial; and right that we must listen to those who ‘creatively speak about’ the human world ‘in sensitive humane ways’. There were two main reasons why Leavis’s attack rather backfired – first, and not surprisingly, the lecture was read as little more than a personal attack on Snow. Leavis is responsible for this. If the lecture was a classic it was a classic of unrestrained invective. There was little of the living creative expression which Leavis himself demanded from excellent writing, and the fact that the main target of the lecture was unquestionably Snow himself hugely distracted from his arguments. Leavis wanted above all to take Snow as a writer down. Then the second, more fundamental fact is that Leavis himself had previously argued , in his analysis of the 17th cent, that the old organic culture had become fractured, and that Newtonian science had reduced linguistic creativity & split the nation’s culture into, on the one hand, the refined, learned & scientific; and, on the other, the more creative and living culture of England. So in his lecture he was evidently angry not just at Snow, but at a civilisation that was dominated by rational scientific thinking rather than creative life. In other words, as critics pointed out, he had inadvertently lent weight to Snow’s argument that there were indeed two cultures and that he, in the literary culture, was against the modern scientific civilisation (though not he claimed against science itself). Regarding Eric M’s criticism of Snow: I don’t think he thought that knowing the laws of physics was more important than a good foundation in the humanities – there’s no evidence for that view, and we should not forget that Snow was a novelist not a scientist; but he thought that the literary culture ought to pay more respect to the scientific (something that Aldous Huxley does, for example, in Brave New World, without approving of it). My own point is that more creative writers should understand more about science, not that they should come out in sympathy with it.

March 22nd, 2017
5:03 PM
I read this article with interest. I'm just about to take my GCSEs and they are overloaded with science. Physics, Chemistry, Biology and Maths are compulsory, yet History, which is surely essential for any understanding of the political and social world we live in, is an option. I agree that it is helpful to have a knowledge of the scientific developments which shape our lives but I feel strongly that they should be seen within the context of the arts and humanities.

Robert O'Brien
March 21st, 2017
6:03 PM
Some very interesting comments, especially from Chuck Lanigan, Don Phillipson, Erin Macdonald and Jan Sand: it would be good to write another article responding to them, but in any case I will try and post comments on them. To take Don Phillipson's for the moment, he is quite right, except perhaps on the point about international politics: I think Trilling meant that Snow wrote about the international scientific communities almost as though they were all part of one rather friendly community in which were rivals of the others, rather than locked in an appallingly dangerous contest of military and technological might, with all the existential implications that had. I think he was right, but Don P is also right that Snow was extremely concerned about the competitive side of the whole matter, so it is a question of what is considered most important - that competition, or the more individual human and artistic response to massive threat.

Bill Gruber
March 21st, 2017
5:03 PM
Love Chuck Lanigan's quote from Thoreau: the thing we have go to remember about a lot of science, especially cosmic physics, is that is basically suprahuman. It's not about us. Didn't someone say that the proper study of mankind is man? And that will always be the case whatever science does. I think that is what Leavis may have been getting at.

John Lobell
March 15th, 2017
4:03 PM
Let's be sure to read Snow. He points out that those in the literary culture are often ignorant of much of science and proud of it. A point even more valid today.

Jim McCaffery
March 14th, 2017
3:03 PM
What makes the argument between Literature and Science seem particularly outdated is the fact that in most social and educational circles both cultures have been largely replaced by Marketing and Technology, respectively.

Chuck Lanigan
March 14th, 2017
1:03 PM
Okay. This got me going. Why in h*ll don't we address these questions in school and society instead of rarified intellectual discussions? E.g., Neil Postman suggestion that we ask about any new technology: 'What problem (if any) does this solve? What problem(s) does it create? Couple of reading suggestions 1. Postman's 'Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology' and 'Building a Bridge to the 18th Century: How the Past Can Improve Our Future. 2. S. Zuboff's 'In the Age of the Smart Machine: the Future of Work and Power'. 3. David Noble’s ‘The Religion of Technology; The Divinity of Man and the Spirit of Invention’. I’m also a huge fan of Tom Standage (wonderful writer and 'splainer) and James Burke's 'Connections' and 'The Day the Universe Changed'. Populizers? Sure. And antidotes to scientific reductionism and data-driven idiocy we are falling heir to. Go back and read Thoreau as well: ‘All our inventions are but improved means to unimproved ends.’

Eric MacDonald
March 13th, 2017
11:03 PM
I think you give too little credit to FR Leavis, and I do not think that Snow's success was the reason for his outraged Richmond Lecture, which is – I think Leavis was right in this – a classic text and should be read more carefully. It was indeed outraged, for Snow was in a position of influence, and pretending to have a foot in each of the two cultures was in a position to do great damage, which I think he in fact succeeded in doing. Leavis, on the other hand, was a Jeremiah, scathingly reviewing a stuffed shirt, who had no claim to be really a novelist, and with his claim to having been a physicist, and thinking the Second Law of Thermodyanmics more important than a reasonable foundation in a humane culture, the result of which has been a gap that is now more than an ocean, but a number of light years in distance. The idea that science really provides adequately for beauty in the sense in which Snow himself put it that "the scientific edifice of the physical world," he argued, is "in its intellectual depth, complexity and articulation, the most beautiful and wonderful collective work of the mind of man." Upon which Leavis comments: "it is pleasant to think of Snow contemplating, daily perhaps, the intellectual depth, complexity and articulation in all their beauty. But there is a prior human achievement of collaborative creation, a more basis work of the mind of man (and more than the mind), one without which the triumphant erection of the scientific edifice would not have been possible: that is, the human world, including language. It is one we cannot rest on as something done in the past. It lives in the living creative response to change in the present." And it is in this, which is collaborative, because the poem, as Leavis points out, is "out there" and only becomes real in its appropriation by the minds which read and understand it in the light of their experience. This is a foundation very different from the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which, while informative about the structure of the physical world, is not informative about the human world in which we must learn to live. When Leavis' lecture was published, I thought it one of the most wonderful statements of the problem with thinking of two cultures that there has ever been. While science is indeed essential to much of our understanding of the world, it will not obviously help us to become more attuned to the human world, and may, as Leavis warned us, in fact interfere with our ability to respond to the human world, and those who creatively speak about it, in sensitive and humane ways. If we do need to revisit the two cultures, it is pricipally to consider a bit more deeply what Leavis had to say, because his classic has been sadly neglected these many years. Leavis' words are for the ages, and are perhaps especially needed now. Snows "Two Cultures" is distinctly of the past, and showed very little understand of what constitutes culture. Scientists appreciate this, and are very often well versed in the classical literary, musical and artistic works of their culture.

March 13th, 2017
9:03 PM
Digital Art starting in the 1990's is often collaboration between artists and scientists. This collaboration has branched out into bio art. In a few cases there are scientists who are also artists. There is a scientist who studies frogs who has been inspired by his method of studies to create art. Gelernter comes to mind in the field of software for his love of art.

March 13th, 2017
8:03 PM
I think it would help if mathematicians would quit using numbers and were to use letters in normal ways

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